Bioware has released the official Jedi Consular progression video for Star Wars: The Old Republic. Like all progression videos they show us how the class plays at the beginning of the journey and branches off to show us the two paths players can take when they choose an advanced class at level 10.
The Jedi Consular is the mage version of the Jedi and can branch off into becoming a Shadow or a Sage. The Jedi Shadow is melee oriented. They invest in stealth to attack opponents from behind and do massive damage. If you love to sneak around and burst opponents down, this is the job for you.
The Sage on the other hand is all about the force. They specialize in a wide variety of magical attacks coupled with crowd controls spells and healing abilities, they are the goto class for people who enjoy playing a mage.
Source: SWTOR Official Site